- In electron microscopes (EM) the images are formed by the interaction of electrons with the object.
- In scanning electron microscopes (SEM) the sample is scanned with a focused beam of electrons.
- Surface images with a high depth of field are characteristic.
- Usual resolutions: 1-30nm (depending on the instrument). Current limitation ca. 0.4 nm.
- Usual magnifications: 10 - 300.000x
- Detection of backscattered or secondary electrons.
- Elemental analysis by EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy)